September 18, 2015
A first draft of the tree of life for all 2.3 million named species of animals, plants, fungi and microbes has been released. Thousands of smaller trees have been published over the years for select branches, but this is the first time those results have been combined into a single tree. The end result is a digital resource that is available online for anyone to use or edit, much like a ‘Wikipedia’ for evolutionary relationships.
A collaborative effort among eleven institutions, the tree depicts the relationships among living things as they diverged from one another over time, tracing back to the beginning of life on Earth more than 3.5 billion years ago.
Tens of thousands of smaller trees have been published over the years for select branches of the tree of life — some containing upwards of 100,000 species — but this is the first time those results have been combined into a single tree that encompasses all of life. The end result is a digital resource that available free online for anyone to use or edit, much like a “Wikipedia” for evolutionary trees.
“This is the first real attempt to connect the dots and put it all together,” said principal investigator Karen Cranston of Duke University. “Think of it as Version 1.0.”
Read full article at ScienceDaily.com.
I have a huge number of Lupinus pilosus seeds, please feel free to contact me if you’re interested. Some brief info below and here’s a link to a previous post with additional info:
Lupinus pilosus, commonly called Blue Lupine, or in Arabic: ترمس برّي , in Hebrew: תורמוס ההרים. Fantastic plant, nitrogen fixing, drought tolerant. After blooming the plant develop giant pods full of large seeds. Germinates in early spring / late winter growing into early / mid summer when they bloom and g
Of ethnobotanical interest: In the areas around the South Tyrolean village of Altrei (Anterivo), Italy, L. pilosus was historically grown. The seeds were roasted and mixed with malt grains and infused in boiling water to produce a coffee-like but caffeine-free hot beverage, Altreier Kaffee (“Altrei coffee”). Interesting not only from a cultural and historical but also from a botanical standpoint, since 2006 a local initiative is re-establishing L. pilosus cultivation in the Altrei region to revive this culinary specialty.
From Scientific American:
UK researchers have identified a mutant plant that is able to thrive on soil contaminated with high concentrations of the explosive TNT. The finding opens the way to cleaning up the vast swathes of land throughout the world – principally military firing ranges—polluted with the highly toxic and persistent compound. In addition the team has pinpointed the mechanism by which TNT exerts its toxicity in plants, and say this could lead to the development of new herbicides.
Read full article at Scientific American: Mutant Plants Mop up Explosives
Here are some photos of a variety of Nicotiana rustica I am growing in my garden this summer. This is an enthogenic species of Nicotiana (tobacco) native to South America containing up to nine times more nicotine then commercial Nicotiana tabaccum. N. rustica leaves also contain high levels of β-carbolines including harmala alkaloids. In South American ethnobotanical preparations, Mapacho (Nicotiana rustica) leaves are soaked or infused in water, and the water is then insufflated into the stomach in a preparation known as singado or singa; the leaves can also smoked in cigars , used as an enema, made into a lickable product known as ambil, and made into a snuff with the bark of a species of Theobroma, creating nu-nu. In the southeast part of Turkey, people use this herb and ashes of some tree bodies to make a moist snuff called maraş otu. They use this by putting the mixture under their lips like Swedish snus or Afghan naswar. It is also a common admixture of Ayahuasca in some parts of the Amazon. The leaves of N. rustica can be used to make a powerful organic insecticide.
Here’s a snippet from a recent article in Popular Archaeology exploring the contemporary plight of Amazonian peoples and going further to pose the question: “how does the knowledge of the legacy of Late pre-Columbian groups inform modern conservation and sustainable agricultural practices for the future of the Amazon and other tropical regions of the world?” :
In a newly published article in Science Magazine, contributing correspondent Andrew Lawler reports in detail the evolving crisis of events and issues surrounding the recent activities of isolated forest tribes inhabiting the deepest regions of the Peruvian rainforest. What could be described as “throwbacks” to a largely bygone prehistoric era, these people have maintained a traditional “hunter-gatherer” lifestyle, separate from the modern economies that surround them in both Peru and Brazil.
Villagers living along the banks of the Curanja River in the rainforest of eastern Peru are reporting frequent sightings and “raids” from these mysterious forest people, says Lawler in the article. “A surge in sightings and raids in both Peru and Brazil may be a sign that some of the world’s last peoples living outside the global economy are emerging,” he writes.* He reports villagers complaining of stolen goods and destroyed homes, attributing the acts to these “naked ones” from deep within the forest.
To be sure, anthropologists and others have known of the forest peoples’ existence for years. But ethical questions have energized the issue of how and even if contemporary modern villagers and other representatives of ‘developed’ society should contact them. Scientists and health officials often mention, for example, their likely vulnerability to the transmission of disease that, because of their lack of immunity to common pathogens, could mean decimation of their groups to the point of extinction.
It’s easy to imagine—South America, before Columbus, was thought to have teemed with an indigenous population of anywhere between 30 and 100 million people. But in the decades following Columbus’ arrival in 1492, most of these people, along with much of their culture, vanished, due at least in part to disease from pathogens introduced by the incoming Europeans. As historical records and archaeology note, that was only part of a far more complex story of tragic interaction.
Read the complete article here, at Popular Archaeology.
More from this blog on pre-Colombian land management in the Americas:
Here are some further findings demonstrating how a dying tree of one species can transfer nutrients to a tree of an entirely different species through complex Rhizopogon mycorrhizal networks acting as conduits between trees… Heres an excerpt from a Scientific American article by Jennifer Frazer discussing this fascinating interaction, along with a link to the complete article.
No tree is an island, and no place is this truer than the forest. Hidden beneath the soil of the forest understory is a labyrinth of fungal connections between tree roots that scientists call the mycorrhizal network. Others have called it thewood-wide web.
The connections are made by the filaments of fungi that grow in and around plant roots and produce many of the forest mushrooms we know and love. They bond trees so intimately that the more you learn about them, the more it is a struggle to view any tree as an individual. Forest trees and their root fungi are more or less a commune in which they share resources in a fashion so unabashedly socialist that I hesitate to describe it in detail lest conservatives reading this go out and immediately set light to the nearest copse.
This story stars two trees. They are the interior douglas-fir and the ponderosa pine — hearty and prolific trees that grow over large spans of the American west. The ponderosa pine is my favorite conifer and maybe also my favorite tree. Its forests are full of air and light; its bark smells like butterscotch or vanilla when warmed by the sun.
Unlike many mycorrhizal fungi, which produce colorful and beautiful gilled or pored mushrooms at the surface, Rhizopogon makes what is called a “false truffle” — an underground spore-making body. Rhizopogon does start to peep through the surface litter, however, as it nears ripeness, as you can see above.
Like all truffles they make their living by enticing mammals with an irresistible smell to dig them up and eat them. The mammals’ digestive systems, fidgety personalities (in the American west, squirrels are often the mammals in question), and the call of nature do the rest. Many, many distantly related fungi have evolved to do this separately; it seems to be an adaptation favored in dry climates where low-humidities make traditional moist breeze-based spore dispersal methods less effective.Rhizopogon seems to have evolved from above-ground pore-bearing mushrooms called boletes.
The spores are produced in the many contortions inside the “fruiting body”, as you can see below. Click through to the original to magnify and appreciate the intricacy of this biological lace.
Mycorrhizal fungi like Rhizopogon partner with plant roots because each gets something out of it. The fungus infiltrates the plants’ roots. But it does not attack — far from it. The plant makes and delivers food to the fungus; the fungus, in turn, dramatically increases the plant’s water and mineral absorptive powers via its vast network of filaments. They provide far more surface area for absorption than the meager supply of short root hairs the tree could grow alone. What has not been appreciated until relatively recently is both how complex mycorrhizal fungal networks can be and that they can also act as conduits between trees. Much of the work I’m about to describe to you has come out of the laboratory of Professor Suzanne Simard at the University of British Columbia.
This recent article from the BBC discusses a project that uses drones to laser-scan the amazon to detect anthropogenic landforms / earthworks, evidence of ancient civilizations in the Amazon – the most expansive wilderness area on earth was most likely once home to much larger populations then previously thought. Here are some excerpts from the original article, below:
Scientists are to scan the Amazon forest in Brazil to look for evidence of occupation by ancient civilizations.
A drone will be sent up with a laser instrument to peer through the canopy for earthworks that were constructed thousands of years ago.
The UK-led project is trying to determine how big these communities were, and to what degree they altered the landscape.
The data is likely to inform policies on sustainable forest use today.
The key quest is to try to understand the scale and activities of populations living in the late pre-Columbian period (the last 3,000 years before the Europeans arrived in the 1490s).
“While some researchers think that Amazonia was inhabited by small bands of hunter-gatherers and shifting cultivators who had a minimal impact on the environment, and that the forest we see today is pristine and untouched for thousands of years – mounting evidence is showing this may not be the case.
“This evidence suggests that Amazonia may have been inhabited by large, numerous, complex and hierarchical societies that had a major impact on the environment; what we call the ‘cultural parkland hypothesis’,” he told BBC News.
Read the full article here on BBC
Here is a link to additional, related news and articles posted on this website… You might also be interested in chinampas or the domesticated landscapes of los llanos de Moxos, or Agroforestry.
High wind and heavy rain in Spain recently washed away sand on a beach, exposing “perfectly preserved” fossils of 300 million year old trees. See article and a link below:
Rain in Spain unearths fossilised trees that predate dinosaurs
A recent spate of appalling weather in northern Spain has led to the discovery of perfectly preserved fossilized trees, which scientists believe could be 300 million years old – a period well before dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
Here is some recent news about Agro-ecological principals / foundations being adopted into French law under the European Union’s reformed Common Agricultural Policy .
From Agri.eu: Agro-Ecology has officially made its way into French law, seeking to combine economic, environmental and social performance, reduce the consumption of energy, water, fertilizer, pesticides and veterinary medicine, and to work with natural mechanisms instead of against them.
The incorporation of Agro-Ecology into law took over two years and required the laying of a solid foundation in the form of ambitious agricultural reform projects. The campaign entitled “Year One of Agro-Ecology” celebrates the assembly of Agro-Ecology’s legal foundation and marks the beginning of what promises to be a proliferation of new and improved agricultural practices. The European Union’s reformed Common Agricultural Policy and the announcement of the Loi d’Avenir (The “Future Law”) reaffirm that the desired objectives of Agro-Ecology are and will continue to be reflected in the French legal system.
Read the rest of this article at Agri.eu.
I’m growing a purple variety of cauliflower this year. Although the true wild origin is not quite known, this heirloom variety comes from Sicily, another purple variety exists from S. Africa. The purple color is naturally occurring, caused by the presence of anthocyanins, a group of antioxidants which can also be found in red cabbage and red wine.
Cauliflower is rich in vitamin C. A half cup of florets provides nearly half of ones daily requirement. Cauliflower is also a good source of fiber, vitamin A, folate, calcium and potassium as well as selenium, which works with Vitamin C to boost the immune system. Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower are known for their high levels of cancer-fighting phytochemicals know as glucosinolates.
Pachira aquatica is a medium size tree native to tropical wetlands of Central and South America. Its native habitat tends to be seasonally flooded lowlands or swamps, however it is adaptable to a wide range of tropical environments. The large, oblong fruit is full of large seeds which taste reminiscent of peanuts, and can be eaten raw, cooked, or ground into flour to make bread. The leaves and flowers are also edible.
Pachira aquatica is closely related to Pachira glabra (saba nut). Here’s a number of previous posts related to the Bombacaceae family.
Click individual photos below to enlarge
Here’s a photo of two immature Biriba fruit. When mature the fruit turns bright yellow.
Biriba can be found growing in the wild in the islands of the Caribbean and in northern South America. Although still relatively unknown, it becoming increasingly common in cultivation. It is most widely cultivated in the Brazilian state of Para.
The fruit is consumed raw. It’s sweet pulp has a very agreeable flavor; a somewhat mucilaginous, custard-like texture. Many Brazilians consider the Biriba to be the best tasting fruit of the Anonaceae family. I would consider that possibility myself, although there the quality of the fruit can vary from tree to tree depending on where / how it is grown, etc. The fruit is eaten fresh, out of hand, or in smoothies, sorbets and ice creams.
Reportedly, the seeds of Biriba can/are used for their insecticidal properties. Macerated seeds, soaked in water and strained, might hold potential for a good organic foliar insecticide and fungicide.
Don’t eat seeds from Biriba or any other Anonaceous seeds, they may poison and possibly kill you.
Biriba is a species form the hot, humid tropics and grows best in areas with more than 1,250 mm of annual rainfall. The tree and fruit develop best in clay soils, deep, well drained and rich in organic matter.
The seedling Biriba tree begins to produce fruit around the third year of growth reaching maximum production in the eighth year. A single tree can produce around eighty fruits a year weighing between .4 and 1 kilo. Here in Panama it is one of the most productive fruit trees I have seen, however it is also very uncommon. Virtually unknown. I cannot recall when I have seen it in this area of Central America outside of private botanical collections.
When collecting seed for propagation, collect only the largest seeds from the largest fruits harvested from the most healthy and disease resistant trees.
Actually more closely related to the turnip (Brassica rapa var. rapa) then broccoli, Rapini is likely the semi-domesticated descent of a wild herb originating either in China or the Mediterranean region.
Rapini is a good source of vitamins A, C, and K, as well as potassium, calcium, and iron. The leaves, stems, buds, and flowers are edible. Photos of the flowers and buds below.